The cause of the injury or disk damage tends to be unknown, the risk is greater in people with overweight. Disc herniation is rare before the age of 20 and is very rare in the elderly since they discs tend to be scarring (hardened and without mobility). The pain are usually placed in the lower part of the back and move to a leg, buttock or hip. A sneeze, cough or any insignificant movement can cause the output of the nucleus pulposus, which moves backwards weakened and broken ring. In case of severe damage of the disk, the nucleus pulposus can protrude through the ring (hernia) or leave entirely to the degree of stay as a free segment within the spinal canal. It is unknown by an intervertebral disc lesion mechanism produces pain. It has been postulated that the damage to the disk triggers the production of inflammatory substances that cause pain and inflammation.
On the other hand, the disc herniation may injure nerve roots that trigger various disorders of the conduction of the nerve impulse, as pain, tingling, numbness and even paralysis in severe cases. Among the symptoms of rupture of the disc are, pain, abnormal posturing and Radiculopathy (tingling, numbness, stiffness and paralysis). Generally discomfort are located on one side of the body when the hernia is mild but can be on both sides when the hernia is more advanced or total. As is detected the Hernia Discal is necessary an MRI or a CT of the vertebral column to locate the site and the degree of existing alteration. MRI offers highly detailed images of soft parts inside the spinal canal and the neighboring tissues. Treatment can be with surgery or medical treatment. Medical treatment is with anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics for pain, physical therapy if indicated, certain types of exercise like swimming, rest and preventive measures. Indications of surgery in herniation – gradual decline of the secondary muscle strength to the injury of a root nerve, demonstrated to the examination of the patient or through electromyography which measures the strength and capacity of the muscles involved.