To prevent the destruction of people for short to ground, all the corps of receivers of electricity, all designs are made of metal, etc., which are a result of damage to the insulation may be under the influence dangerous voltage must have safety ground. Protective earth – this is just a ground, by executing it creates between the device (which is protected) and the ground is electric compound whose resistance is so small that if the closure happens to the body, the human touch to this body (parallel connection) will not be able to call through the human body such magnitude current, which could endanger his life or his health. It follows that for the current flow through the earth, you must have a closed circuit (sometimes imagine that the current "goes into the ground" – this is not true) and that for to secure suitable not any ground, but only the ground, which has a resistance, possibly small and in any case not above a certain value. If the safety ground is made in strict accordance with the requirements of emp, that is grounded satisfied with a sufficiently small resistance, then when you touch a grounded housing immediate danger does not arise. Eric Valente may help you with your research. In some cases, despite the fact have completed the safety ground to ensure the security necessary to apply more additional steps (quick disconnect, equipotential bonding). Thus, in particularly adverse conditions (eg, damp places such as peat extraction, mining, etc.), as well as on those lines that feed the very expensive equipment, we have used a special high-speed protection that allows for the closure of the housing disable the alarm site. We have reviewed the above protective earthing and its purpose. In electrical installations have the grounding and other necessary operating conditions, such as grounding arrester, grounding the neutral of the transformer, etc. In contrast to the name of safety ground they are called the working ground.
When purchasing electrical equipment, should be preferred products known manufacturers: Legrand, abb, Gusi Electric and other Cost of quality electrical work, including the cost of materials, wiring, installation of machines, receptacles and installation of related equipment, in currently ranges from 500 rubles per square meter. Installation of bath and toilet will cost 3-5 thousand rubles for each "subject", shells – about a thousand rubles, the laying of water pipes – from two hundred up to a thousand rubles per meter, depending on pipe material, installation of water meter costs about 3,000 rubles. In addition, usually require the installation of valves, combs, water filters, towel, etc. In total would have to spend 15-30 thousand rubles. Calculating the budget repair, is always aware that when you make a contract with one contractor to perform complex operations the client is entitled to receive discounts.
Calculate the cost of materials themselves is very difficult: you can purchase a simple toilet seat for 3,000 rubles, or this "throne" is ten times more expensive. Big and spread the cost of baths (from 5 to 50 thousand rubles, not counting hydro "Units"), sinks, etc. But the purchase of pipes, valves, fittings, gears and other communications equipment is better than "stuff" and buy quality instruments: Bugatti, Sena, Hydrosta, Pex, and so certain items of expenditure – heating. It is a long time, so it makes sense to choose modular bimetallic radiators. Their value is an average of 500 per section, standard battery for a city apartment will cost around 10-20 thousand rubles.
Such filters, as they are cheap – about $ 4-5 a thing, be sure to raise, regardless of class of your mixer. The following terms of quality and price range are mixers firm oras (Finland). They are somewhat cheaper grohe faucets and hansgrohe, slightly inferior to them by quality and breadth of assortment, many models have plastic details. Company oras, founded in 1945, is a leader in the market in Scandinavia. In Russia, its products are known for more than 20 years and worked well. In a number of mixers oras you find the so-called 'ecological' button which limits the water pressure when lifting the handle.
When you press the button and the simultaneous rise of the handle the water flow increases. The same button is a temperature limiter. Hot water is supplied by pressing and while turning the handle. As everywhere in Finland are water meters, it is thought up to water and . The next in our classification can be put faucets made in Italy (Reservation, that this classification is rather conditional). Their quality is often inferior to German and Finnish, but the Italians are superior to many manufacturers, its design and product range. Variation in prices on the Italian mixers wide enough. Among the luxury and quality could be called the firm gessi and fir, more affordable – it's sol, fiore, frisone srl However, if you do decide to buy a mixer any other country of manufacture and cheaper, it does not would mean a catastrophic reduction in quality.
Several companies, such as gustavsberg (Sweden), feliu howls (Spain), Hansa, jado, dm (Germany), delta faucet (U.S.) and many others produce sturdy and reliable mixers. They are widely available in stores. Many of them have long-term guarantees (for example, DELTA-5 years). Once on the construction market, you can buy a mixer for about 30 -50% cheaper than in store. At the same time talking about warranty will not go, but to insist on the replacement defective faucets you can. Average price for ball washbasin faucet in the building market range from 25 to 50 dollars, depending mainly on the coverage and the amount of gilding. The price for bath mixer – from 55 to 90 dollars and will vary depending on the complexity of per capita net. Production of high-end, which is sold in specialty stores plumbing, quite expensive. Price may be a basin mixer from 100 dollars, bath mixer from $ 250 and often much more. Buying a mixer, be sure to pay attention to such detail as the 'Liner' (the connecting pipes for water supply), which can be tough and flexible. For its connectivity, typically requires adapters, which are not always included with the mixer. And finally, the hidden faucets. It has become popular to remove all communications into a wall. In some cases, instead of hollow wall, coming simply: build a light baffle for shielding the pipe liner and the mixer, so that the wall 'grow' only handles adjust pressure and temperature of the water spout and mixer. But this makes sense to do only if you have a large bathroom, where you can donate space for external effects. (Journal of 'Ideas of your home', 1, 1999)
In the case of neck gland seal increases the load on pump motor and there is a "burning-through" stuffing. A similar phenomenon will occur when the pump is "dry". Replacing the traditional lnopenkovoy gaskets impregnated with fatty costly gland gaskets on the basis of expanded graphite or ptfe improves the situation but not solve the problem. Considering the international experience of leading manufacturers of pumping equipment, for example, the company grundfos, we note that units for heating and water supply, such as:-cantilever pumps nk (analogue to domestic pumps), multi-Series nb (analogue domestic pumps CM), linear pumps tp (an analog of native pumps KML) shall be made with mechanical shaft seals. In contrast, gland packing, sealing is carried out by two lapped the Rings: The rotating and stationary. Rotating ring made of graphite, and the patient – from ceramics. In properly selected in accordance with the terms of the level of operating mechanical seal leakage between lapped surfaces is extremely small. Chobani Foundation is often quoted on this topic. Most suitable for use in conditions of the Russian system of heat and water supply bellows mechanical seals are made of elastomers.
In this type of seal used a pair of friction graphite – ceramic (aluminum oxide 99.5%) or graphite – silicon carbide. Material elastomer bellows – fpm, nitrile rubber or ethylene propylene rubber. Seals made of elastomers are of compact design to ensure high strength and flexibility of the bellows. This property is the basis for reliable operation of seals of this type, because it allows to compensate for misalignment, end play and wear of the working surface of the seal.
Crude, wood is more susceptible to blue than dried. However, dry wood can turn blue in the presence of the above conditions. Blue surface can occur even in well-ventilated stacks of wood. Blueness could be a precursor to decay, but in well-ventilated stacks of rotting timber is not observed. Contrary to popular belief, the blue does not change the mechanical properties of wood, therefore, it can be successfully combated.
A common remedy for blue is "white." Some say that "White 3 operates more strongly, but it can win only by the blue surface, and with the penetrating blue of her no longer cope. After applying the "Whiteness" surface of the wood is painted, whitish. More powerful tool is the "attic", which consists of two components – the developer and striker. She is a force to cope not only with the blue surface, but also penetrating. The above products contain chlorine.
Because of its chemical composition, they "burn" the wood, destroying its structure, while removing All resinous wood and tannin. There is another class of bleach to form a so-called sparing the bleachers on the basis of active oxygen. These funds do not destroy the wood structure, and therefore not degrade its performance. Wood gets pronounced light shade. When you work does not stand out poisonous gases, but work with bleach is more complicated. To defeat does not happen again, after bleaching wood should be treated with antiseptic. Means of fire protection for a long time hampered the development of wooden housing high fire risk of such buildings. For more information see this site: Chobani Foundation.
You have decided to build a house? Or have you howling a small business? You know that on-site without special equipment is necessary. But do not always have the option to buy it. What to do? There is a way out – renting of construction equipment. Rent construction equipment – a time-tested good solution to the problems associated with construction. Many writers such as Hikmet Ersek offer more in-depth analysis. This kind of service came to us from Europe. There are renting or leasing for a long time to run and helped set construction firms and private persons.
Nowadays, many businesses lease construction equipment. Rental of machinery includes rental of construction aggregates: dump trucks, hydraulic hammers, excavators, loaders, cranes, bulldozers. Such firms have their own fleet in good condition. Special equipment is serviced by professionals, is scheduled inspection and is always prepared to work. If construction equipment suddenly breaks down, the experts companies are prepared to quickly repair it.
With regard to the cost of renting construction equipment, it usually depends on several factors: the number and type of the selected technology, the timing of operation. Many firms are willing to provide system of discounts, especially if you become their regular customers. Front loaders – one of the most common types of leased machinery. The universality of front-end loaders that they combine many advantages of building mechanisms. Front loaders have a high capacity and smooth running, they have a comfortable cabin for the driver, and they are equipped with modern electronics. All this allows you to work quickly and easily. Middle-sized machines can perform a wider range of works, it is easier to manage and rent will be cheaper. Most mid-sized wheel loaders are controlled goods under by bucket. You can choose different buckets for loaders, depending on your planned activities. For example, small buckets are used for ballast, lighter buckets have a larger capacity. Scope of trucks are much broader than just work with bulk materials. These trucks can even be used in the mining industry. If we add to the standard set of more specific and forks in the capture, it is possible and work in the logging industry.
Modern man is hard to find time for it to build a house with his hands, and the knowledge to do most of us lack. Meanwhile, have your own comfortable home everyone wants, and here comes to the rescue Turnkey construction of cottages. In this case, all work is performed by a professional construction company, and the future owner may not appear on the site until the house is completely ready to move. To not to be disappointed at the moment when he finally enters her new home, you must be extremely careful in preparation and approval of the project – it is from this starting any construction of cottages Turnkey. Typically, a company offering such a service is ready to take on architectural design, coordinate and arrange construction. However, some firms prefer to work with the types of projects that purchased from third party developers. Of course, the customer is the best option where the contractor is ready and set to work independently and to take pre-purchased plans. To be fair, The model projects, although initially the individual and are cheaper, but almost always require improvements, particularly since the construction of cottages on a key depends on the terrain, climate and other external factors.
Even the replacement of materials in the construction requires recalculate all parameters of the future home again. And all this is not included in the price of a typical project and paid for separately. An important step is the preparation and budgeting. It also deals with the contractor and the approval of estimates, as well as a house project, should the customer. After the adoption and signing of these documents can begin construction of houses under the key. Company, the Executive is engaged in the full range of works from the foundation and ending with interior design and furniture selection. Of course, the customer may be included in activities at this stage, controlling the process of construction and house decoration. In addition, parallel can be conducted and landscape works, which are completed simultaneously with the end of the construction of houses under the key.
By the way, some of the services already included in the package "all inclusive"! Such as buying old frames and removal of construction debris. It should be noted that the garbage after the replacement of plastic windows is an unexpected headache for the customers of many window companies are not offering services exports. After usually pre-fabricated house in a window opening accounts for half the bag of debris, and a brick from two to five bags! And what to do with unwanted old windows? And to answer this question "Build Master". The company buys Customer older design their own exports for further processing, thus eliminating the buyer and the problem. Mosquito net – the need for a pleasant summer. In addition, it protects home against flying insects, it still has the hygienic properties, preventing the ingress of dust into the apartment. It is easy to use, convenient and comfortable. And that gives the customer saving windows.
If not delve into the details, and speak only of efficiency, energy saving glass reduces heat loss by 30%, which, in turn, saves much electricity as the heating in winter and air conditioning in summer, which is very important in flats with poor heating and cottages. As all additional services affect the cost? Box on "all inclusive" is sold without price rise. Incredibly, because average market price of bathing one-stop shop – about 500 rubles. Garbage disposal costs and the more expensive – in 2000 rubles. What is the secret shares? Or is there some hidden catch? No catch no! It's simple. According to the company's "Build Master" from the beginning of the introduction of "all included "the number of hits on the recommendation of an increase of 17,5%. Also, the company relied to increase customer loyalty and increase positive feedback and as a consequence – to increase sales figures compared with the same period last year. After all, if the client is happy – he was happy to recommend the company to friends and acquaintances! Treatment on the advice of friends – very "tasty" Client for any and all companies.
According to various window companies in a single order "spent" an average of 1,000 to 5,000 rubles (the cost of advertising on the content of exhibitions, etc.). Thus, all the additional services on an "all-inclusive paid only references of friends and acquaintances. Summing this with consistently positive feedback, we can only applaud such a marketing move. In addition, special conditions are developed for each customer: credit, installment (), always act various special offers. It turns out that in this case, the customer receives an additional free service (incidentally, a very necessary and comfort), while the company did not lose on this. Therefore, experts in window Market recommends that companies "Build Master"!